The role of both cannabis use and genetic background has been shown in the risk for psychosis. However, the effect of the interplay between cannabis and variability at the endocannabinoid receptor genes on the neurobiological underpinnings of psychosis remains inconclusive. Through a case-only design, including patients with a first-episode of psychosis (n = 40) classified as cannabis users (50%) and non-users (50%), we aimed to evaluate the interaction between cannabis use and common genetic variants at the endocannabinoid receptor genes on brain activity. Genetic variability was assessed by genotyping two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) at the cannabinoid receptor type 1 gene (; rs1049353) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 gene ; rs2501431). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data were obtained while performing the n-back task. Gene × cannabis interaction models evidenced a combined effect of and genotypes and cannabis use on brain activity in different brain areas, such as the caudate nucleus, the cingulate cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. These findings suggest a joint role of cannabis use and cannabinoid receptor genetic background on brain function in first-episode psychosis, possibly through the impact on brain areas relevant to the reward circuit.