In spite of extensive work, inconsistent findings and lack of specificity in most neuroimaging techniques used to examine age- and gender-related patterns in brain tissue microstructure indicate the need for additional research. Here, we performed the largest Multi-component T relaxometry cross-sectional study to date in healthy adults (N = 145, 18-60 years). Five quantitative microstructure parameters derived from various segments of the estimated T spectra were evaluated, allowing a more specific interpretation of results in terms of tissue microstructure. We found similar age-related myelin water fraction (MWF) patterns in men and women but we also observed differential male related results including increased MWF content in a few white matter tracts, a faster decline with age of the intra- and extra-cellular water fraction and its T relaxation time (i.e. steeper age related negative slopes) and a faster increase in the free and quasi-free water fraction, spanning the whole grey matter. Such results point to a sexual dimorphism in brain tissue microstructure and suggest a lesser vulnerability to age-related changes in women.