Network analysis is an important conceptual and analytical approach in mental health research. However, few studies have used network analysis to examine the structure of cognitive performance in psychotic disorders. We examined the network structure of the cognitive scores of a sample of 207 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 188 healthy controls. Participants were assessed using a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests. Fourteen cognitive scores encompassing six cognitive domains and premorbid IQ were selected to perform the network analysis. Many similarities were found in the network structure of FEP patients and healthy controls. Verbal memory, attention, working memory and executive function nodes were the most central nodes in the network. Nodes in both groups corresponding to the same tests tended to be strongly connected. Verbal memory, attention, working memory and executive function were central dimensions in the cognitive network of FEP patients and controls. These results suggest that the interplay between these core dimensions is essential for demands to solve complex tasks, and these interactions may guide the aims of cognitive rehabilitation. Network analysis of cognitive dimensions might have therapeutic implications that deserve further research.